19 August, 2014

Napoleon Bonaparte - An essay by Abhay Venkitaraman

(Image : playbuzz.com via Google)

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte or Napoleon I was a Military and political leader in France in the early 18th Century. He became the King of France in 1804

Early life

Napoleon was born as Napoleone di Buonaparte on the French island of Corsica in 1769. The island was previously under the control of the Republic of Genoa, and Corsica came under French control a year before Napoleon's birth . Napoleon’s family were descendants of minor Italian nobility, and Napoleon's father was Corsica’s representative to the French Court. Napoleon had 7 siblings: an elder brother named Joseph and younger siblings named Lucien, Elisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline and Jerome.

In 1779, Napoleon was enrolled in a school in Mainland France, and a few months later, Napoleon was admitted in a military academy in Brienne-le-Chateau. He completed his studies at the academy in 1784 and was admitted at another military school in Paris. He trained to become an artillery officer and one year later, he graduated.

Early Military Career

Napoleon became a second lieutenant in an artillery regiment. He served in the military until the French Revolution, when he took leave. Napoleon fought with Corsican Rebels in the Corsican Revolution and was a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Corsican Militia. When he fell out with the leader of the militia, he fled to the French Mainland.

After the French Revolution, a French city named Toulon rose against the Revolutionary Government. Toulon had been occupied by British troops. Napoleon was one of the leaders of the Siege of Toulon. Toulon was successfully retaken. Napoleon also suppressed a Royalist rebellion with a “Whiff of Grapeshot”. Napoleon became the Commander of the French forces in Italy in 1796. In the same year, Napoleon married Josephine de Beauharnais.


War of the First Coalition

At the same time, France was having a war with a number of states in Continental Europe which saw France as a threat. The war had started in 1792 when France declared war against Austria and Prussia. In 1797, Napoleon invaded Austria. This forced Austria to sue for peace. A French Invasion of Britain failed. The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed between Austria and France. Belgium was ceded to France and Austria recognized French control over the Rhineland and a large part of Italy. The Republic of Venice which Napoleon had invaded was partitioned between France and Austria. France remained at war with Great Britain. France had a number of satellite states in Germany and Italy.

Invasion of Egypt

In 1798, Napoleon captured the island of Malta and captured Egypt from the Ottoman Empire . There were a number of nationalist rebellions in Egypt, but these were suppressed by the French Administration. Artifacts like the Rosetta stone were discovered. But he was forced back to France by the British and the French Fleet was destroyed in the Battle of the Nile.

War of the Second Coalition

War with Continental Europe resumed in 1799 and in the same year, Napoleon overthrew the French directory and became First Consul of France. He reorganized the French Army. Anglo-Russian troops invaded Holland but the invading forces ended up surrendering. Meanwhile the Russian Forces under General Suvorov defeated the French in Italy. But Suvorov was ordered by the Russian Emperor to transfer his troops to Switzerland, where Suvorov’s troops came under the command of another general. The Russian Army was defeated at the Second Battle of Zurich. After the battle, Russia pulled out of the Second Coalition.

Peace in Europe

In 1801, the war ended and France and Great Britain signed the treaty of Amiens. Napoleon faced a slave rebellion in Haiti and ended up losing Haiti in 1803. In the same year, Napoleon sold the Louisiana Territory in North America to the United States.

War of the Third Coalition

In 1803, Britain declared war on France. In 1804, Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor, and due to Austrian and Russian threats, he launched an offensive on the Rhine, calling off an Invasion of Great Britain. In the Ulm Offensive, the French Army managed to surround the Austrian Army and was victorious He defeated the Russian and Austrian Armies at the Battle of Austerlitz. This ended the Third Coalition. The Holy Roman Empire was destroyed. France also gained territory. The Confederation of the Rhine was formed with Napoleon as its protector.

War of the Fourth Coalition

Napoleon’s empire gained even more territory after the War of the Fourth Coalition. France signed a treaty with Russia, dividing Europe between the two empires. France also signed a treaty with Prussia, stripping it of a lot of land. Napoleon placed puppet rulers on the thrones of German States. Napoleon also attempted to enforce a law called the Continental System in which a lot of countries in Continental Europe were forced to boycott British Goods in response to Britain’s naval blockade of France. But this encouraged British Traders to smuggle goods into Continental Europe, and Britain’s control of the seas helped to reduce the effect of the Continental System on Britain’s economy. The Continental System also hurt the economies of countries in Continental Europe.


War of the Fifth Coalition

In 1809, Austria broke its alliance with France, and war resumed. Napoleon suffered a defeat at the Battle of Aspern-Essling. The French then defeated the Austrians at Wagram. Austria then signed the Treaty of Schonbrunn. Britain also attempted to invade Holland, but the British troops caught a fever and many of them died. The British troops were forced to retreat. Napoleon also annexed the Papal States after the Church refused to adopt the Continental System.

Invasion of Russia

As relations between France and Russia soured, Napoleon made plans to invade Russia. Napoleon invaded Russia in June 1812. The invasion was catastrophic for France. The French Army was destroyed. Napoleon managed to capture Moscow, but he withdrew from Russia soon after that. The harsh Russian winter halted the French Army, and the Russians also gave stiff resistance. French morale was also low.

War of the Sixth Coalition

A 6th Coalition was formed. Napoleon suffered losses in Germany. At the same time, France was fighting a war in the Iberian Peninsula against Britain and Spanish Rebels. The war had started in 1807, when the old Spanish king was deposed by Napoleon and Napoleon put one of his brothers on the Spanish Throne. France lost power in the Iberian Peninsula in 1814. At the same time, coalition forces entered France and Paris fell.

Exile to Elba and Hundred Days

Napoleon abdicated and fled into exile on the island of Elba, and Louis XVIII was placed on the French Throne. Napoleon managed to return to the French Mainland and after Louis XVIII caught hold of this, he sent the 5th Regiment to arrest Napoleon and found him. Napoleon marched to within gunshot range and said “Here I am. Kill your emperor, if you wish.” The soldiers responded with Vive L’Empereur!” Louis XVIII fled and Napoleon retook the throne. This began a period known as the “Hundred Days.” Napoleon was defeated by British and Prussian forces at the Battle of Waterloo.As Coalition Forces came closer to Paris, Napoleon lost hope in retaining the French Throne, and placed his son on the French Throne(Napoleon's son would later be forced off the French Throne. Napoleon thought of going into exile in the United States, but all ports were blocked by the British. Napoleon surrendered on the British ship HMS Bellerophon 

Exile to St Helena and Death

Napoleon surrendered to the British and was exiled to the Atlantic island of St Helena. He lived at Longwood House. While in St Helena, Napoleon’s health rapidly declined, and he died in 1821.

Legacy

Napoleon has been remembered for the implementation of the Napoleonic Code, a civil code which is the basis of the laws of many countries in today’s world. He also made greater property rights, greater suffrage rights and better education for French citizens. But Napoleon was considered a tyrant by his opponents, and left France bankrupt at the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

In my opinion; Napoleon was one of the greatest leaders in history, a great man who revolutionised Europe, a man who had so much power and influence, but ended up dying in vain



"Great ambition is the passion of a great character.  Those endowed with it may perform very good or bad acts.  All depends on the principles which direct them." ~ Napoleon Bonaparte


 Sources :

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Bellerophon_(1786)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_invasion_of_Russia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleonic_Wars
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Waterloo





3 voice(s) said so:

lakshmi said...

very well written abhay, and liked the headings that separated the sections. keep it up. lakshmi

lakshmi said...

A well written essay, liked the way you have given section headings which made it easier to read. Keep it up. Lakshmi

Random Thoughts said...

Bravo!

Well researched and well written.